Breast Cancer

What is it?

The breast cancer station is a computerized survey that asks about breast cancer knowledge, mammography (breast cancer screening) readiness, and obstacles to screening in the local community.  The data from this station are not presented on our website, though they are available for analysis.

How is it measured?

This computerized station automatically tailors to both age and gender.

Breast cancer knowledge is a short seven question quiz that any participant over age 13 can complete.

Mammography screening readiness tailors questions based on the participant’s age and gender and provides feedback based on Rakowski’s Stages of Change model adapted for mammography.  For example, an individual will answer questions about mammogram screening practices for:

Herself, if she is a female over 40
A loved one, if she is a female under 40
A loved one, if he is a male

Local barriers to screening tailors questions like above.  This section is to determine what, if any, information might help the participant or a loved one get a mammogram.  Fourteen questions ask about personal, logistical, financial and medical obstacles to screening, with feedback tailoring to the individual’s top three screening barriers.

This station is available for the following audience and takes approximately:

  • Adults (English, Spanish,) – Takes 5-9 minutes
  • Kids over 13 years only (English, Spanish) – Takes 5-8 minutes.

How we determined the categories?

Breast cancer knowledge score reports the number correct out of seven.

Mammography screening readiness uses Rakowski’s Stages of Change model adapted for mammography and categorizes individuals into Group 1 (pre-contemplation, relapse, risk of relapse), Group 2 (contemplation, preparation), Group 3 (action),  or Group 4 (maintenance, termination).

Local barriers to screening uses the individual’s top three screening barriers to provide tailored feedback.

Where to get more information…

Younger women and men can get breast cancer, but it is rare.  A mammogram is a low-dose X-ray picture of the breast that takes less than 1 minute.  Mammograms are not recommended for young women without high risk (such as parent or sibling with breast cancer before age 40 or a gene abnormality). Ask your health care professional what is best for you. The National Cancer Institute estimates the risk for a woman in each of the following age groups as:

Ages 30 through age 39 . . . . . . 1 woman in 233

Ages 40 through age 49 . . . . . . 1 woman in 69

Ages 50 through age 59 ………1 woman in 42

Ages 60 through age 69 ……….1 woman in 29

Overall lifetime risk ……….1 woman in 8


Research Bibliography

The Stages of Change model was developed by James O. Prochaska at the University of Rhode Island. This model was adapted to mammography, in a study by Rakowski et al. (1998).

Rakowski W, Ehrich B, Goldstein MG, Rimer BK, Pearlman DN, Clark MA, Velicer WF, Woolverton H 3rd. (1998). Increasing mammography among women aged 40-74 by use of a stage-matched, tailored intervention. Prev Med, 27(5 Pt 1):748-56. PMID: 9808807


This station was made possible thanks to generous support from the National Cancer Institute (collaborative grant with Brian Druker and Lisa Domenico).

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